Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa

Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years’ Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean.


David Livingstone, LL.D., D.C.L.,

Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow; Corresponding Member of the Geographical and Statistical Society of New York; Gold Medalist and Corresponding Member of the Royal Geographical Societies of London and Paris F.S.A., Etc., Etc.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1.

The Bakwain Country — Study of the Language — Native Ideas regarding Comets — Mabotsa Station — A Lion Encounter — Virus of the Teeth of Lions — Names of the Bechuana Tribes — Sechele — His Ancestors — Obtains the Chieftainship — His Marriage and Government — The Kotla — First public Religious Services — Sechele’s Questions — He Learns to Read — Novel mode for Converting his Tribe — Surprise at their Indifference — Polygamy — Baptism of Sechele — Opposition of the Natives — Purchase Land at Chonuane — Relations with the People — Their Intelligence — Prolonged Drought — Consequent Trials — Rain-medicine — God’s Word blamed — Native Reasoning — Rain-maker — Dispute between Rain Doctor and Medical Doctor — The Hunting Hopo — Salt or animal Food a necessary of Life — Duties of a Missionary.

Chapter 2.

The Boers — Their Treatment of the Natives — Seizure of native Children for Slaves — English Traders — Alarm of the Boers — Native Espionage — The Tale of the Cannon — The Boers threaten Sechele — In violation of Treaty, they stop English Traders and expel Missionaries — They attack the Bakwains — Their Mode of Fighting — The Natives killed and the School-children carried into Slavery — Destruction of English Property — African Housebuilding and Housekeeping — Mode of Spending the Day — Scarcity of Food — Locusts — Edible Frogs — Scavenger Beetle — Continued Hostility of the Boers — The Journey north — Preparations — Fellow-travelers — The Kalahari Desert — Vegetation — Watermelons — The Inhabitants — The Bushmen — Their nomad Mode of Life — Appearance — The Bakalahari — Their Love for Agriculture and for domestic Animals — Timid Character — Mode of obtaining Water — Female Water-suckers — The Desert — Water hidden.

Chapter 3.

Departure from Kolobeng, 1st June, 1849 — Companions — Our Route — Abundance of Grass — Serotli, a Fountain in the Desert — Mode of digging Wells — The Eland — Animals of the Desert — The Hyaena — The Chief Sekomi — Dangers — The wandering Guide — Cross Purposes — Slow Progress — Want of Water — Capture of a Bushwoman — The Salt-pan at Nchokotsa — The Mirage — Reach the River Zouga — The Quakers of Africa — Discovery of Lake Ngami, 1st August, 1849 — Its Extent — Small Depth of Water — Position as the Reservoir of a great River System — The Bamangwato and their Chief — Desire to visit Sebituane, the Chief of the Makololo — Refusal of Lechulatebe to furnish us with Guides — Resolve to return to the Cape — The Banks of the Zouga — Pitfalls — Trees of the District — Elephants — New Species of Antelope — Fish in the Zouga.

Chapter 4.

Leave Kolobeng again for the Country of Sebituane — Reach the Zouga — The Tsetse — A Party of Englishmen — Death of Mr. Rider — Obtain Guides — Children fall sick with Fever — Relinquish the Attempt to reach Sebituane — Mr. Oswell’s Elephant-hunting — Return to Kolobeng — Make a third Start thence — Reach Nchokotsa — Salt-pans — “Links”, or Springs — Bushmen — Our Guide Shobo — The Banajoa — An ugly Chief — The Tsetse — Bite fatal to domestic Animals, but harmless to wild Animals and Man — Operation of the Poison — Losses caused by it — The Makololo — Our Meeting with Sebituane — Sketch of his Career — His Courage and Conquests — Manoeuvres of the Batoka — He outwits them — His Wars with the Matebele — Predictions of a native Prophet — Successes of the Makololo — Renewed Attacks of the Matebele — The Island of Loyelo — Defeat of the Matebele — Sebituane’s Policy — His Kindness to Strangers and to the Poor — His sudden Illness and Death — Succeeded by his Daughter — Her Friendliness to us — Discovery, in June, 1851, of the Zambesi flowing in the Centre of the Continent — Its Size — The Mambari — The Slave-trade — Determine to send Family to England — Return to the Cape in April, 1852 — Safe Transit through the Caffre Country during Hostilities — Need of a “Special Correspondent” — Kindness of the London Missionary Society — Assistance afforded by the Astronomer Royal at the Cape.

Chapter 5.

Start in June, 1852, on the last and longest Journey from Cape Town — Companions — Wagon-traveling — Physical Divisions of Africa — The Eastern, Central, and Western Zones — The Kalahari Desert — Its Vegetation — Increasing Value of the Interior for Colonization — Our Route — Dutch Boers — Their Habits — Sterile Appearance of the District — Failure of Grass — Succeeded by other Plants — Vines — Animals — The Boers as Farmers — Migration of Springbucks — Wariness of Animals — The Orange River — Territory of the Griquas and Bechuanas — The Griquas — The Chief Waterboer — His wise and energetic Government — His Fidelity — Ill-considered Measures of the Colonial Government in regard to Supplies of Gunpowder — Success of the Missionaries among the Griquas and Bechuanas — Manifest Improvement of the native Character — Dress of the Natives — A full-dress Costume — A Native’s Description of the Natives — Articles of Commerce in the Country of the Bechuanas — Their Unwillingness to learn, and Readiness to criticise.

Chapter 6.

Kuruman — Its fine Fountain — Vegetation of the District — Remains of ancient Forests — Vegetable Poison — The Bible translated by Mr. Moffat — Capabilities of the Language — Christianity among the Natives — The Missionaries should extend their Labors more beyond the Cape Colony — Model Christians — Disgraceful Attack of the Boers on the Bakwains — Letter from Sechele — Details of the Attack — Numbers of School-children carried away into Slavery — Destruction of House and Property at Kolobeng — The Boers vow Vengeance against me — Consequent Difficulty of getting Servants to accompany me on my Journey — Start in November, 1852 — Meet Sechele on his way to England to obtain Redress from the Queen — He is unable to proceed beyond the Cape — Meet Mr. Macabe on his Return from Lake Ngami — The hot Wind of the Desert — Electric State of the Atmosphere — Flock of Swifts — Reach Litubaruba — The Cave Lepelole — Superstitions regarding it — Impoverished State of the Bakwains — Retaliation on the Boers — Slavery — Attachment of the Bechuanas to Children — Hydrophobia unknown — Diseases of the Bakwains few in number — Yearly Epidemics — Hasty Burials — Ophthalmia — Native Doctors — Knowledge of Surgery at a very low Ebb — Little Attendance given to Women at their Confinements — The “Child Medicine” — Salubrity of the Climate well adapted for Invalids suffering from pulmonary Complaints.

Chapter 7.

Departure from the Country of the Bakwains — Large black Ant — Land Tortoises — Diseases of wild Animals — Habits of old Lions — Cowardice of the Lion — Its Dread of a Snare — Major Vardon’s Note — The Roar of the Lion resembles the Cry of the Ostrich — Seldom attacks full-grown Animals — Buffaloes and Lions — Mice — Serpents — Treading on one — Venomous and harmless Varieties — Fascination — Sekomi’s Ideas of Honesty — Ceremony of the Sechu for Boys — The Boyale for young Women — Bamangwato Hills — The Unicorn’s Pass — The Country beyond — Grain — Scarcity of Water — Honorable Conduct of English Gentlemen — Gordon Cumming’s hunting Adventures — A Word of Advice for young Sportsmen — Bushwomen drawing Water — Ostrich — Silly Habit — Paces — Eggs — Food.

Chapter 8.

Effects of Missionary Efforts — Belief in the Deity — Ideas of the Bakwains on Religion — Departure from their Country — Salt-pans — Sour Curd — Nchokotsa — Bitter Waters — Thirst suffered by the wild Animals — Wanton Cruelty in Hunting — Ntwetwe — Mowana-trees — Their extraordinary Vitality — The Mopane-tree — The Morala — The Bushmen — Their Superstitions — Elephant-hunting — Superiority of civilized over barbarous Sportsmen — The Chief Kaisa — His Fear of Responsibility — Beauty of the Country at Unku — The Mohonono Bush — Severe Labor in cutting our Way — Party seized with Fever — Escape of our Cattle — Bakwain Mode of recapturing them — Vagaries of sick Servants — Discovery of grape-bearing Vines — An Ant-eater — Difficulty of passing through the Forest — Sickness of my Companion — The Bushmen — Their Mode of destroying Lions — Poisons — The solitary Hill — A picturesque Valley — Beauty of the Country — Arrive at the Sanshureh River — The flooded Prairies — A pontooning Expedition — A night Bivouac — The Chobe — Arrive at the Village of Moremi — Surprise of the Makololo at our sudden Appearance — Cross the Chobe on our way to Linyanti.

Chapter 9.

Reception at Linyanti — The court Herald — Sekeletu obtains the Chieftainship from his Sister — Mpepe’s Plot — Slave-trading Mambari — Their sudden Flight — Sekeletu narrowly escapes Assassination — Execution of Mpepe — The Courts of Law — Mode of trying Offenses — Sekeletu’s Reason for not learning to read the Bible — The Disposition made of the Wives of a deceased Chief — Makololo Women — They work but little — Employ Serfs — Their Drink, Dress, and Ornaments — Public Religious Services in the Kotla — Unfavorable Associations of the place — Native Doctors — Proposals to teach the Makololo to read — Sekeletu’s Present — Reason for accepting it — Trading in Ivory — Accidental Fire — Presents for Sekeletu — Two Breeds of native Cattle — Ornamenting the Cattle — The Women and the Looking-glass — Mode of preparing the Skins of Oxen for Mantles and for Shields — Throwing the Spear.

Chapter 10.

The Fever — Its Symptoms — Remedies of the native Doctors — Hospitality of Sekeletu and his People — One of their Reasons for Polygamy — They cultivate largely — The Makalaka or subject Tribes — Sebituane’s Policy respecting them — Their Affection for him — Products of the Soil — Instrument of Culture — The Tribute — Distributed by the Chief — A warlike Demonstration — Lechulatebe’s Provocations — The Makololo determine to punish him — The Bechuanas — Meaning of the Term — Three Divisions of the great Family of South Africans.

Chapter 11.

Departure from Linyanti for Sesheke — Level Country — Ant-hills — Wild Date-trees — Appearance of our Attendants on the March — The Chief’s Guard — They attempt to ride on Ox-back — Vast Herds of the new Antelopes, Leches, and Nakongs — The native way of hunting them — Reception at the Villages — Presents of Beer and Milk — Eating with the Hand — The Chief provides the Oxen for Slaughter — Social Mode of Eating — The Sugar-cane — Sekeletu’s novel Test of Character — Cleanliness of Makololo Huts — Their Construction and Appearance — The Beds — Cross the Leeambye — Aspect of this part of the Country — The small Antelope Tianyane unknown in the South — Hunting on foot — An Eland.

Chapter 12.

Procure Canoes and ascend the Leeambye — Beautiful Islands — Winter Landscape — Industry and Skill of the Banyeti — Rapids — Falls of Gonye — Tradition — Annual Inundations — Fertility of the great Barotse Valley — Execution of two Conspirators — The Slave-dealer’s Stockade — Naliele, the Capital, built on an artificial Mound — Santuru, a great Hunter — The Barotse Method of commemorating any remarkable Event — Better Treatment of Women — More religious Feeling — Belief in a future State, and in the Existence of spiritual Beings — Gardens — Fish, Fruit, and Game — Proceed to the Limits of the Barotse Country — Sekeletu provides Rowers and a Herald — The River and Vicinity — Hippopotamus-hunters — No healthy Location — Determine to go to Loanda — Buffaloes, Elands, and Lions above Libonta — Interview with the Mambari — Two Arabs from Zanzibar — Their Opinion of the Portuguese and the English — Reach the Town of Ma–Sekeletu — Joy of the People at the first Visit of their Chief — Return to Sesheke — Heathenism.

Chapter 13.

Preliminary Arrangements for the Journey — A Picho — Twenty-seven Men appointed to accompany me to the West — Eagerness of the Makololo for direct Trade with the Coast — Effects of Fever — A Makololo Question — The lost Journal — Reflections — The Outfit for the Journey — 11th November, 1853, leave Linyanti, and embark on the Chobe — Dangerous Hippopotami — Banks of Chobe — Trees — The Course of the River — The Island Mparia at the Confluence of the Chobe and the Leeambye — Anecdote — Ascend the Leeambye — A Makalaka Mother defies the Authority of the Makololo Head Man at Sesheke — Punishment of Thieves — Observance of the new Moon — Public Addresses at Sesheke — Attention of the People — Results — Proceed up the River — The Fruit which yields ‘Nux vomica’ — Other Fruits — The Rapids — Birds — Fish — Hippopotami and their Young.

Chapter 14.

Increasing Beauty of the Country — Mode of spending the Day — The People and the Falls of Gonye — A Makololo Foray — A second prevented, and Captives delivered up — Politeness and Liberality of the People — The Rains — Present of Oxen — The fugitive Barotse — Sekobinyane’s Misgovernment — Bee-eaters and other Birds — Fresh-water Sponges — Current — Death from a Lion’s Bite at Libonta — Continued Kindness — Arrangements for spending the Night during the Journey — Cooking and Washing — Abundance of animal Life — Different Species of Birds — Water-fowl — Egyptian Geese — Alligators — Narrow Escape of one of my Men — Superstitious Feelings respecting the Alligator — Large Game — The most vulnerable Spot — Gun Medicine — A Sunday — Birds of Song — Depravity; its Treatment — Wild Fruits — Green Pigeons — Shoals of Fish — Hippopotami.

Chapter 15.

Message to Masiko, the Barotse Chief, regarding the Captives — Navigation of the Leeambye — Capabilities of this District — The Leeba — Flowers and Bees — Buffalo-hunt — Field for a Botanist — Young Alligators; their savage Nature — Suspicion of the Balonda — Sekelenke’s Present — A Man and his two Wives — Hunters — Message from Manenko, a female Chief — Mambari Traders — A Dream — Sheakondo and his People — Teeth-filing — Desire for Butter — Interview with Nyamoana, another female Chief — Court Etiquette — Hair versus Wool — Increase of Superstition — Arrival of Manenko; her Appearance and Husband — Mode of Salutation — Anklets — Embassy, with a Present from Masiko — Roast Beef — Manioc — Magic Lantern — Manenko an accomplished Scold: compels us to wait — Unsuccessful Zebra-hunt.

Chapter 16.

Nyamoana’s Present — Charms — Manenko’s pedestrian Powers — An Idol — Balonda Arms — Rain — Hunger — Palisades — Dense Forests — Artificial Beehives — Mushrooms — Villagers lend the Roofs of their Houses — Divination and Idols — Manenko’s Whims — A night Alarm — Shinte’s Messengers and Present — The proper Way to approach a Village — A Merman — Enter Shinte’s Town: its Appearance — Meet two half-caste Slave-traders — The Makololo scorn them — The Balonda real Negroes — Grand Reception from Shinte — His Kotla — Ceremony of Introduction — The Orators — Women — Musicians and Musical Instruments — A disagreeable Request — Private Interviews with Shinte — Give him an Ox — Fertility of Soil — Manenko’s new Hut — Conversation with Shinte — Kolimbota’s Proposal — Balonda’s Punctiliousness — Selling Children — Kidnapping — Shinte’s Offer of a Slave — Magic Lantern — Alarm of Women — Delay — Sambanza returns intoxicated — The last and greatest Proof of Shinte’s Friendship.

Chapter 17.

Leave Shinte — Manioc Gardens — Mode of preparing the poisonous kind — Its general Use — Presents of Food — Punctiliousness of the Balonda — Their Idols and Superstition — Dress of the Balonda — Villages beyond Lonaje — Cazembe — Our Guides and the Makololo — Night Rains — Inquiries for English cotton Goods — Intemese’s Fiction — Visit from an old Man — Theft — Industry of our Guide — Loss of Pontoon — Plains covered with Water — Affection of the Balonda for their Mothers — A Night on an Island — The Grass on the Plains — Source of the Rivers — Loan of the Roofs of Huts — A Halt — Fertility of the Country through which the Lokalueje flows — Omnivorous Fish — Natives’ Mode of catching them — The Village of a Half-brother of Katema, his Speech and Present — Our Guide’s Perversity — Mozenkwa’s pleasant Home and Family — Clear Water of the flooded Rivers — A Messenger from Katema — Quendende’s Village: his Kindness — Crop of Wool — Meet People from the Town of Matiamvo — Fireside Talk — Matiamvo’s Character and Conduct — Presentation at Katema’s Court: his Present, good Sense, and Appearance — Interview on the following Day — Cattle — A Feast and a Makololo Dance — Arrest of a Fugitive — Dignified old Courtier — Katema’s lax Government — Cold Wind from the North — Canaries and other singing Birds — Spiders, their Nests and Webs — Lake Dilolo — Tradition — Sagacity of Ants.

Chapter 18.

The Watershed between the northern and southern Rivers — A deep Valley — Rustic Bridge — Fountains on the Slopes of the Valleys — Village of Kabinje — Good Effects of the Belief in the Power of Charms — Demand for Gunpowder and English Calico — The Kasai — Vexatious Trick — Want of Food — No Game — Katende’s unreasonable Demand — A grave Offense — Toll-bridge Keeper — Greedy Guides — Flooded Valleys — Swim the Nyuana Loke — Prompt Kindness of my Men — Makololo Remarks on the rich uncultivated Valleys — Difference in the Color of Africans — Reach a Village of the Chiboque — The Head Man’s impudent Message — Surrounds our Encampment with his Warriors — The Pretense — Their Demand — Prospect of a Fight — Way in which it was averted — Change our Path — Summer — Fever — Beehives and the Honey-guide — Instinct of Trees — Climbers — The Ox Sinbad — Absence of Thorns in the Forests — Plant peculiar to a forsaken Garden — Bad Guides — Insubordination suppressed — Beset by Enemies — A Robber Party — More Troubles — Detained by Ionga Panza — His Village — Annoyed by Bangala Traders — My Men discouraged — Their Determination and Precaution.

Chapter 19.

Guides prepaid — Bark Canoes — Deserted by Guides — Mistakes respecting the Coanza — Feelings of freed Slaves — Gardens and Villages — Native Traders — A Grave — Valley of the Quango — Bamboo — White Larvae used as Food — Bashinje Insolence — A posing Question — The Chief Sansawe — His Hostility — Pass him safely — The River Quango — Chief’s mode of dressing his Hair — Opposition — Opportune Aid by Cypriano — His generous Hospitality — Ability of Half-castes to read and write — Books and Images — Marauding Party burned in the Grass — Arrive at Cassange — A good Supper — Kindness of Captain Neves — Portuguese Curiosity and Questions — Anniversary of the Resurrection — No Prejudice against Color — Country around Cassange — Sell Sekeletu’s Ivory — Makololo’s Surprise at the high Price obtained — Proposal to return Home, and Reasons — Soldier-guide — Hill Kasala — Tala Mungongo, Village of — Civility of Basongo — True Negroes — A Field of Wheat — Carriers — Sleeping-places — Fever — Enter District of Ambaca — Good Fruits of Jesuit Teaching — The ‘Tampan’; its Bite — Universal Hospitality of the Portuguese — A Tale of the Mambari — Exhilarating Effects of Highland Scenery — District of Golungo Alto — Want of good Roads — Fertility — Forests of gigantic Timber — Native Carpenters — Coffee Estate — Sterility of Country near the Coast — Mosquitoes — Fears of the Makololo — Welcome by Mr. Gabriel to Loanda.

Chapter 20.

Continued Sickness — Kindness of the Bishop of Angola and her Majesty’s Officers — Mr. Gabriel’s unwearied Hospitality — Serious Deportment of the Makololo — They visit Ships of War — Politeness of the Officers and Men — The Makololo attend Mass in the Cathedral — Their Remarks — Find Employment in collecting Firewood and unloading Coal — Their superior Judgment respecting Goods — Beneficial Influence of the Bishop of Angola — The City of St. Paul de Loanda — The Harbor — Custom-house — No English Merchants — Sincerity of the Portuguese Government in suppressing the Slave-trade — Convict Soldiers — Presents from Bishop and Merchants for Sekeletu — Outfit — Leave Loanda 20th September, 1854 — Accompanied by Mr. Gabriel as far as Icollo i Bengo — Sugar Manufactory — Geology of this part of the Country — Women spinning Cotton — Its Price — Native Weavers — Market-places — Cazengo; its Coffee Plantations — South American Trees — Ruins of Iron Foundry — Native Miners — The Banks of the Lucalla — Cottages with Stages — Tobacco-plants — Town of Massangano — Sugar and Rice — Superior District for Cotton — Portuguese Merchants and foreign Enterprise — Ruins — The Fort and its ancient Guns — Former Importance of Massangano — Fires — The Tribe Kisama — Peculiar Variety of Domestic Fowl — Coffee Plantations — Return to Golungo Alto — Self-complacency of the Makololo — Fever — Jaundice — Insanity.

Chapter 21.

Visit a deserted Convent — Favorable Report of Jesuits and their Teaching — Gradations of native Society — Punishment of Thieves — Palm-toddy; its baneful Effects — Freemasons — Marriages and Funerals — Litigation — Mr. Canto’s Illness — Bad Behavior of his Slaves — An Entertainment — Ideas on Free Labor — Loss of American Cotton-seed — Abundance of Cotton in the country — Sickness of Sekeletu’s Horse — Eclipse of the Sun — Insects which distill Water — Experiments with them — Proceed to Ambaca — Sickly Season — Office of Commandant — Punishment of official Delinquents — Present from Mr. Schut of Loanda — Visit Pungo Andongo — Its good Pasturage, Grain, Fruit, etc. — The Fort and columnar Rocks — The Queen of Jinga — Salubrity of Pungo Andongo — Price of a Slave — A Merchant-prince — His Hospitality — Hear of the Loss of my Papers in “Forerunner” — Narrow Escape from an Alligator — Ancient Burial-places — Neglect of Agriculture in Angola — Manioc the staple Product — Its Cheapness — Sickness — Friendly Visit from a colored Priest — The Prince of Congo — No Priests in the Interior of Angola.

Chapter 22.

Leave Pungo Andongo — Extent of Portuguese Power — Meet Traders and Carriers — Red Ants; their fierce Attack; Usefulness; Numbers — Descend the Heights of Tala Mungongo — Fruit-trees in the Valley of Cassange — Edible Muscle — Birds — Cassange Village — Quinine and Cathory — Sickness of Captain Neves’ Infant — A Diviner thrashed — Death of the Child — Mourning — Loss of Life from the Ordeal — Wide-spread Superstitions — The Chieftainship — Charms — Receive Copies of the “Times” — Trading Pombeiros — Present for Matiamvo — Fever after westerly Winds — Capabilities of Angola for producing the raw Materials of English Manufacture — Trading Parties with Ivory — More Fever — A Hyaena’s Choice — Makololo Opinion of the Portuguese — Cypriano’s Debt — A Funeral — Dread of disembodied Spirits — Beautiful Morning Scenes — Crossing the Quango — Ambakistas called “The Jews of Angola” — Fashions of the Bashinje — Approach the Village of Sansawe — His Idea of Dignity — The Pombeiros’ Present — Long Detention — A Blow on the Beard — Attacked in a Forest — Sudden Conversion of a fighting Chief to Peace Principles by means of a Revolver — No Blood shed in consequence — Rate of Traveling — Slave Women — Way of addressing Slaves — Their thievish Propensities — Feeders of the Congo or Zaire — Obliged to refuse Presents — Cross the Loajima — Appearance of People; Hair Fashions.

Chapter 23.

Make a Detour southward — Peculiarities of the Inhabitants — Scarcity of Animals — Forests — Geological Structure of the Country — Abundance and Cheapness of Food near the Chihombo — A Slave lost — The Makololo Opinion of Slaveholders — Funeral Obsequies in Cabango — Send a Sketch of the Country to Mr. Gabriel — Native Information respecting the Kasai and Quango — The Trade with Luba — Drainage of Londa — Report of Matiamvo’s Country and Government — Senhor Faria’s Present to a Chief — The Balonda Mode of spending Time — Faithless Guide — Makololo lament the Ignorance of the Balonda — Eagerness of the Villagers for Trade — Civility of a Female Chief — The Chief Bango and his People — Refuse to eat Beef — Ambition of Africans to have a Village — Winters in the Interior — Spring at Kolobeng — White Ants: “Never could desire to eat any thing better” — Young Herbage and Animals — Valley of the Loembwe — The white Man a Hobgoblin — Specimen of Quarreling — Eager Desire for Calico — Want of Clothing at Kawawa’s — Funeral Observances — Agreeable Intercourse with Kawawa — His impudent Demand — Unpleasant Parting — Kawawa tries to prevent our crossing the River Kasai — Stratagem.

Chapter 24.

Level Plains — Vultures and other Birds — Diversity of Color in Flowers of the same Species — The Sundew — Twenty-seventh Attack of Fever — A River which flows in opposite Directions — Lake Dilolo the Watershed between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans — Position of Rocks — Sir Roderick Murchison’s Explanation — Characteristics of the Rainy Season in connection with the Floods of the Zambesi and the Nile — Probable Reason of Difference in Amount of Rain South and North of the Equator — Arab Reports of Region east of Londa — Probable Watershed of the Zambesi and the Nile — Lake Dilolo — Reach Katema’s Town: his renewed Hospitality; desire to appear like a White Man; ludicrous Departure — Jackdaws — Ford southern Branch of Lake Dilolo — Small Fish — Project for a Makololo Village near the Confluence of the Leeba and the Leeambye — Hearty Welcome from Shinte — Kolimbota’s Wound — Plant-seeds and Fruit-trees brought from Angola — Masiko and Limboa’s Quarrel — Nyamoana now a Widow — Purchase Canoes and descend the Leeba — Herds of wild Animals on its Banks — Unsuccessful Buffalo-hunt — Frogs — Sinbad and the Tsetse — Dispatch a Message to Manenko — Arrival of her Husband Sambanza — The Ceremony called Kasendi — Unexpected Fee for performing a surgical Operation — Social Condition of the Tribes — Desertion of Mboenga — Stratagem of Mambowe Hunters — Water-turtles — Charged by a Buffalo — Reception from the People of Libonta — Explain the Causes of our long Delay — Pitsane’s Speech — Thanksgiving Services — Appearance of my “Braves” — Wonderful Kindness of the People.

Chapter 25.

Colony of Birds called Linkololo — The Village of Chitlane — Murder of Mpololo’s Daughter — Execution of the Murderer and his Wife — My Companions find that their Wives have married other Husbands — Sunday — A Party from Masiko — Freedom of Speech — Canoe struck by a Hippopotamus — Gonye — Appearance of Trees at the end of Winter — Murky Atmosphere — Surprising Amount of organic Life — Hornets — The Packages forwarded by Mr. Moffat — Makololo Suspicions and Reply to the Matebele who brought them — Convey the Goods to an Island and build a Hut over them — Ascertain that Sir R. Murchison had recognized the true Form of African Continent — Arrival at Linyanti — A grand Picho — Shrewd Inquiry — Sekeletu in his Uniform — A Trading-party sent to Loanda with Ivory — Mr. Gabriel’s Kindness to them — Difficulties in Trading — Two Makololo Forays during our Absence — Report of the Country to the N.E. — Death of influential Men — The Makololo desire to be nearer the Market — Opinions upon a Change of Residence — Climate of Barotse Valley — Diseases — Author’s Fevers not a fair Criterion in the Matter — The Interior an inviting Field for the Philanthropist — Consultations about a Path to the East Coast — Decide on descending North Bank of Zambesi — Wait for the Rainy Season — Native way of spending Time during the period of greatest Heat — Favorable Opening for Missionary Enterprise — Ben Habib wishes to marry — A Maiden’s Choice — Sekeletu’s Hospitality — Sulphureted Hydrogen and Malaria — Conversations with Makololo — Their moral Character and Conduct — Sekeletu wishes to purchase a Sugar-mill, etc. — The Donkeys — Influence among the Natives — “Food fit for a Chief” — Parting Words of Mamire — Motibe’s Excuses.

Chapter 26.

Departure from Linyanti — A Thunder-storm — An Act of genuine Kindness — Fitted out a second time by the Makololo — Sail down the Leeambye — Sekote’s Kotla and human Skulls; his Grave adorned with Elephants’ Tusks — Victoria Falls — Native Names — Columns of Vapor — Gigantic Crack — Wear of the Rocks — Shrines of the Barimo — “The Pestle of the Gods” — Second Visit to the Falls — Island Garden — Store-house Island — Native Diviners — A European Diviner — Makololo Foray — Marauder to be fined — Mambari — Makololo wish to stop Mambari Slave-trading — Part with Sekeletu — Night Traveling — River Lekone — Ancient fresh-water Lakes — Formation of Lake Ngami — Native Traditions — Drainage of the Great Valley — Native Reports of the Country to the North — Maps — Moyara’s Village — Savage Customs of the Batoka — A Chain of Trading Stations — Remedy against Tsetse — “The Well of Joy” — First Traces of Trade with Europeans — Knocking out the front Teeth — Facetious Explanation — Degradation of the Batoka — Description of the Traveling Party — Cross the Unguesi — Geological Formation — Ruins of a large Town — Productions of the Soil similar to those in Angola — Abundance of Fruit.

Chapter 27.

Low Hills — Black Soldier–Ants; their Cannibalism — The Plasterer and its Chloroform — White Ants; their Usefulness — Mutokwane-smoking; its Effects — Border Territory — Healthy Table-lands — Geological Formation — Cicadae — Trees — Flowers — River Kalomo — Physical Conformation of Country — Ridges, sanatoria — A wounded Buffalo assisted — Buffalo-bird — Rhinoceros-bird — Leaders of Herds — The Honey-guide — The White Mountain — Mozuma River — Sebituane’s old Home — Hostile Village — Prophetic Phrensy — Food of the Elephant — Ant-hills — Friendly Batoka — Clothing despised — Method of Salutation — Wild Fruits — The Captive released — Longings for Peace — Pingola’s Conquests — The Village of Monze — Aspect of the Country — Visit from the Chief Monze and his Wife — Central healthy Locations — Friendly Feelings of the People in reference to a white Resident — Fertility of the Soil — Bashukulompo Mode of dressing their Hair — Gratitude of the Prisoner we released — Kindness and Remarks of Monze’s Sister — Dip of the Rocks — Vegetation — Generosity of the Inhabitants — Their Anxiety for Medicine — Hooping-cough — Birds and Rain.

Chapter 28.

Beautiful Valley — Buffalo — My young Men kill two Elephants — The Hunt — Mode of measuring Height of live Elephants — Wild Animals smaller here than in the South, though their Food is more abundant — The Elephant a dainty Feeder — Semalembue — His Presents — Joy in prospect of living in Peace — Trade — His People’s way of wearing their Hair — Their Mode of Salutation — Old Encampment — Sebituane’s former Residence — Ford of Kafue — Hippopotami — Hills and Villages — Geological Formation — Prodigious Quantities of large Game — Their Tameness — Rains — Less Sickness than in the Journey to Loanda — Reason — Charge from an Elephant — Vast Amount of animal Life on the Zambesi — Water of River discolored — An Island with Buffaloes and Men on it — Native Devices for killing Game — Tsetse now in Country — Agricultural Industry — An Albino murdered by his Mother — “Guilty of Tlolo” — Women who make their Mouths “like those of Ducks” — First Symptom of the Slave-trade on this side — Selole’s Hostility — An armed Party hoaxed — An Italian Marauder slain — Elephant’s Tenacity of Life — A Word to young Sportsmen — Mr. Oswell’s Adventure with an Elephant; narrow Escape — Mburuma’s Village — Suspicious Conduct of his People — Guides attempt to detain us — The Village and People of Ma Mburuma — Character our Guides give of us.

Chapter 29.

Confluence of Loangwa and Zambesi — Hostile Appearances — Ruins of a Church — Turmoil of Spirit — Cross the River — Friendly Parting — Ruins of stone Houses — The Situation of Zumbo for Commerce — Pleasant Gardens — Dr. Lacerda’s Visit to Cazembe — Pereira’s Statement — Unsuccessful Attempt to establish Trade with the People of Cazembe — One of my Men tossed by a Buffalo — Meet a Man with Jacket and Hat on — Hear of the Portuguese and native War — Holms and Terraces on the Banks of a River — Dancing for Corn — Beautiful Country — Mpende’s Hostility — Incantations — A Fight anticipated — Courage and Remarks of my Men — Visit from two old Councilors of Mpende — Their Opinion of the English — Mpende concludes not to fight us — His subsequent Friendship — Aids us to cross the River — The Country — Sweet Potatoes — Bakwain Theory of Rain confirmed — Thunder without Clouds — Desertion of one of my Men — Other Natives’ Ideas of the English — Dalama (gold) — Inhabitants dislike Slave-buyers — Meet native Traders with American Calico — Game-laws — Elephant Medicine — Salt from the Sand — Fertility of Soil — Spotted Hyaena — Liberality and Politeness of the People — Presents — A stingy white Trader — Natives’ Remarks about him — Effect on their Minds — Rain and Wind now from an opposite Direction — Scarcity of Fuel — Trees for Boat-building — Boroma — Freshets — Leave the River — Chicova, its Geological Features — Small Rapid near Tete — Loquacious Guide — Nyampungo, the Rain-charmer — An old Man — No Silver — Gold-washing — No Cattle.

Chapter 30.

An Elephant-hunt — Offering and Prayers to the Barimo for Success — Native Mode of Expression — Working of Game-laws — A Feast — Laughing Hyaenas — Numerous Insects — Curious Notes of Birds of Song — Caterpillars — Butterflies — Silica — The Fruit Makoronga and Elephants — Rhinoceros Adventure — Korwe Bird — Its Nest — A real Confinement — Honey and Beeswax — Superstitious Reverence for the Lion — Slow Traveling — Grapes — The Ue — Monina’s Village — Native Names — Government of the Banyai — Electing a Chief — Youths instructed in “Bonyai” — Suspected of Falsehood — War-dance — Insanity and Disappearance of Monahin — Fruitless Search — Monina’s Sympathy — The Sand-river Tangwe — The Ordeal Muavi: its Victims — An unreasonable Man — “Woman’s Rights” — Presents — Temperance — A winding Course to shun Villages — Banyai Complexion and Hair — Mushrooms — The Tubers, Mokuri — The Tree Shekabakadzi — Face of the Country — Pot-holes — Pursued by a Party of Natives — Unpleasant Threat — Aroused by a Company of Soldiers — A civilized Breakfast — Arrival at Tete.

Chapter 31.

Kind Reception from the Commandant — His Generosity to my Men — The Village of Tete — The Population — Distilled Spirits — The Fort — Cause of the Decadence of Portuguese Power — Former Trade — Slaves employed in Gold-washing — Slave-trade drained the Country of Laborers — The Rebel Nyaude’s Stockade — He burns Tete — Kisaka’s Revolt and Ravages — Extensive Field of Sugar-cane — The Commandant’s good Reputation among the Natives — Providential Guidance — Seams of Coal — A hot Spring — Picturesque Country — Water-carriage to the Coal-fields — Workmen’s Wages — Exports — Price of Provisions — Visit Gold-washings — The Process of obtaining the precious Metal — Coal within a Gold-field — Present from Major Sicard — Natives raise Wheat, etc. — Liberality of the Commandant — Geographical Information from Senhor Candido — Earthquakes — Native Ideas of a Supreme Being — Also of the Immortality and Transmigration of Souls — Fondness for Display at Funerals — Trade Restrictions — Former Jesuit Establishment — State of Religion and Education at Tete — Inundation of the Zambesi — Cotton cultivated — The fibrous Plants Conge and Buaze — Detained by Fever — The Kumbanzo Bark — Native Medicines — Iron, its Quality — Hear of Famine at Kilimane — Death of a Portuguese Lady — The Funeral — Disinterested Kindness of the Portuguese.

Chapter 32.

Leave Tete and proceed down the River — Pass the Stockade of Bonga — Gorge of Lupata — “Spine of the World” — Width of River — Islands — War Drum at Shiramba — Canoe Navigation — Reach Senna — Its ruinous State — Landeens levy Fines upon the Inhabitants — Cowardice of native Militia — State of the Revenue — No direct Trade with Portugal — Attempts to revive the Trade of Eastern Africa — Country round Senna — Gorongozo, a Jesuit Station — Manica, the best Gold Region in Eastern Africa — Boat-building at Senna — Our Departure — Capture of a Rebel Stockade — Plants Alfacinya and Njefu at the Confluence of the Shire — Landeen Opinion of the Whites — Mazaro, the point reached by Captain Parker — His Opinion respecting the Navigation of the River from this to the Ocean — Lieutenant Hoskins’ Remarks on the same subject — Fever, its Effects — Kindly received into the House of Colonel Nunes at Kilimane — Forethought of Captain Nolloth and Dr. Walsh — Joy imbittered — Deep Obligations to the Earl of Clarendon, etc. — On developing Resources of the Interior — Desirableness of Missionary Societies selecting healthy Stations — Arrangements on leaving my Men — Retrospect — Probable Influence of the Discoveries on Slavery — Supply of Cotton, Sugar, etc., by Free Labor — Commercial Stations — Development of the Resources of Africa a Work of Time — Site of Kilimane — Unhealthiness — Death of a shipwrecked Crew from Fever — The Captain saved by Quinine — Arrival of H. M. Brig “Frolic” — Anxiety of one of my Men to go to England — Rough Passage in the Boats to the Ship — Sekwebu’s Alarm — Sail for Mauritius — Sekwebu on board; he becomes insane; drowns himself — Kindness of Major–General C. M. Hay — Escape Shipwreck — Reach Home.

Appendix. — Latitudes and Longitudes of Positions.

Appendix. — Book Review in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, February, 1858.